This is the new Cadillac CTS.

And this is the new Cadillac ATS, its little brother. The CTS is a hit--Cadillac’s first answer to the popular BMW 3 series. But it’s taken a long time to get here.

The breakthrough happened with the 1999 Evoq concept--the informal start of the art and science era.

That lead to the Cadillac CTS, in 2002.

Meanwhile, Cadillac was getting comfortable with a more sculpted look. Here we see it in the 2003 "Sixteen Concept."

But Cadillac still needed something smaller and more agile. What they created was the Cadillac ATS--here’s an early development sketch.

Cadillac ATS--early development sketch.

Cadillac ATS--final sketch.

Next up will be the ELR--Cadillac’s take on the Chevy Volt.

Notice its single driving line forward, accentuated by its blade of a window--this actually makes the final run.

The final product really didn’t turn out much differently. This is where Cadillac is today.


How Cadillac Designed A Comeback

Smaller cars. Smoother lines. Here’s how GM architected the comeback.

Sixteen years ago, Cadillac was the top-selling U.S. luxury car brand. It seems impossible in retrospect, as its line of cars featured the soulless geometries of a geriatric suppository. Evidently, Toyota, BMW, and Mercedes-Benz agreed, and they all moved in to carve out their share of Cadillac’s market. Detroit soon found itself buried underneath the force of German and Japanese design, engineering, and marketing—and sales tanked.

You’d think things could only get better, but they actually got worse. There was the bankruptcy of GM, Cadillac’s parent company, followed by the infamous bailout. Cadillac was neutered, left without the ability to lease out its cars at enticingly affordable rates, which is a hugely damning point in the luxury car market.

The 2014 Cadillac CTS—Cadillac post comeback.

But the brand had been thinking ahead. The organization had already retooled, centralizing the design line under one roof. It had adopted a new mantra of "art and science" to blend a new, bold aesthetic with high-octane engineering. And they’d presented a Hail Mary concept car that inspired its own designers and engineers to invent the decade of turnaround to come.

You could call it all corporate lip service, if not for one key fact: It worked. Today, Cadillac’s sales are the highest they’ve been since 1976. The automaker’s cars rival BMWs on the track. And maybe more importantly, for the first time in 40 years, Cadillac has discovered what a Cadillac should be.

The Root Of The Problem

1959 Cadillac de Ville—rock those tailfins.

Historically, Cadillac design is responsible for some of the most beloved tropes in American automobiles. In the late '40s and '50s, Cadillac introduced the first tailfin, wraparound windshields, hefty Dagmar bumpers, and heavily polished chrome inside and out. Then into the '60s, it did what you’d expect of any good designer who’d pushed the envelope to its limits—it simplified, inspired by the clean lines of modernism, and produced a sort of overstated understatement, a big car that was confident enough not to overdo the filigree.

Into the 1970s, Cadillacs supersized in the name of luxury, but at the worst possible time. The decade’s oil flow was disrupted by OAPEC trade embargoes and Iranian revolution, quadrupling crude oil prices while creating a hysteria of mass fuel shortages. Things got even worse into the early '80s. GM was taken over by its most notorious CEO, Roger Smith (the same Roger in Michael Moore’s Roger and Me). In the interest of ruthless cost cutting, he combined GM’s six distinctive car brands under two generic umbrellas. Ironically, this quest for efficient production killed demand, and Cadillac, alongside GM’s entire portfolio of design heritage, became a bland, homogenous mix. Without an identity in place, Cadillac didn’t produce a lustable car for a few decades.

The 1965 de Ville—note the shift toward simpler lines and less ornamentation.

"They were wandering in the desert for a long time," says Jalopnik Editor-in-Chief Matt Hardigree. "The design language of Cadillac for 20 years was 'How do we not make this car look like a blank?' How do we not make the Cimarron look like a base model Chevy? How do we not make the Catera look like an Opel?"

"[Around 2000], Cadillac took a good look at themselves, and they said, ‘What do we need to do to be successful?’"

Staging The Comeback

Legend has it, GM execs met in an informal meeting sometime around 2000 or 2001 to discuss Cadillac’s future, and from this, they planned a reboot fueled by $4.3 billion in investments to save the brand. Maybe it really was one meeting. Maybe it was a series of meetings. The people I speak to at Cadillac don’t seem to know, and they honestly don’t seem to care.

For the collectiv inside Cadillac, the turnaround really began with a 1999 car concept called the Evoq, created by Kip Wasenko and Simon Cox.

"That was a revolution, and a change of internal culture in the company to think about Cadillac in a different way," says Cadillac’s current design chief Mark Adams. "If you think about the boldness and the very edgy concept that came about with the Evoq, it was deliberately shocking in a way because the only way we could re-establish Cadillac in people’s memory was to do something bold and evocative."

The 1999 Evoq concept—Cadillac’s wake-up call.

It might not seem like it now, but the Evoq was radical for 1999. If you take a look at its Cadillac contemporaries—the Catera, DeVille, or the El Dorado—the Evoq looks like it’s been set on earth to consume them as prey. And while the entire sharp design feels a bit like double-breasted Corvette, you can see many of Cadillac’s contemporary signatures in full swing—a design language spawned a guiding philosophy at Cadillac called "art and science." The "art" is driven by the impression of the Evoq—the brash machined lines, the towering headlights, and a more aggressive posture that’s itching to pick a fight with the nearest open stretch of asphalt. The "science" is the engineering to make that possible, be it repurposed GM technologies or new platforms that Cadillac would pioneer for themselves.

Around the same time, Cadillac united its design teams, which used to create each Cadillac model in relative autonomy, under one roof. "Under previous regimes, one designer might make a great Cadillac," explains Don Butler, VP of Cadillac Global Strategic Development. "Now, we design and plan based upon how our showroom will look like in 2016, in 2017. You have the ability to create continuity into the future. It gives you a sense of reach. How far can we stretch this? How far can we push?"

Because even if you determine a new direction, and even if you have all the talent in place, it still takes about 10 years to turn a car brand around. I’ve heard that before from Ford’s Chief Creative Officer J Mays. And what I hear now from Butler echoes the sentiment.

"Cars aren’t like mobile phones. We can’t change them overnight," Butler tells me. "Mobile phones turn over every six to 18 months. They literally turn over; you don’t see a phone from 2001 still around. Guess what, you still see 2001 Cadillacs on the road. The image in the mind of consumers takes much longer to change."

The original Cadillac CTS, released in 2002.

The used Cadillacs I imagine are either the waxed white boats of the road in Boca Raton, or the rusty tanks lodged permanently on the non-ticketing streets of Chicago. And if you think that pair of images is only ingrained in the heads of consumers, you’d be wrong. Even car designers aren’t immune to the precedents set by their own vehicles out there in the world. It’s why concept cars like the Evoq are remarkably important.

Building out Cadillac’s new showroom in the shadow of the Evoq is a challenge that’s spanned a solid decade. In 2002, Cadillac released the CTS, its first car with some of the Evoq’s DNA. Jalopnik’s Hardigree calls the moment "a rebirth" but is quick to point out that this was but one car in a whole line of previous-generation Cadillacs. It wasn’t for another eight or so years that Cadillac’s showroom felt like it had adopted the "art and science" philosophy from car to car. And Cadillac was still missing the most critical piece to complete the statement—not a luxury flagship but a featherweight fighter—to prove it could appeal to a younger buyer and stand toe-to-toe with Germany and Japan in style and substance.


You see, while the CTS was a decent midsize luxury car, Cadillac’s line still lacked the most important vehicle in high-end vehicles today: a performance-focused compact capable of wooing new buyers considering a luxury car for the first time. What they created was the ATS, a smaller, more nimble Cadillac to compete with the venerable BMW 3 series.

An early pencil sketch of the CTS’s little brother, the ATS.

"We usually start with a platform or architecture, a set of components, then we say, ‘Can we make a Cadillac out of this?'" Butler explains, referring to GM’s post–Roger Smith philosophy of efficiency. "The matter of fact is, when we looked at our shelf at the components we used, there was nothing we had to compete with the luxury compact market."

So rather than rebranding GM parts—the approach that got Cadillac in so much trouble in the past—Cadillac built the ATS largely from scratch. It debuted, rather than repurposed, GM’s new performance-focused Alpha Platform. The platform’s goal is to make a compact to medium-sized car as light as possible, right down to the smallest detail. As Car & Driver put it so eloquently in its review:

When you compare a CTS with an ATS, you see that every part—aluminum or steel—is carefully sculpted to be no thicker than necessary. Aluminum webs are slim, steel stampings have large lightening holes and rolled edges to add stiffness, and most fasteners have been downsized. The manual-transmission housing, the strut towers, the brake booster, and the hood are ­aluminum…Cadillac is sweating the details. It needs to, considering how much ground the ATS has to make up.

The final ATS (2014 version).

Via its newly unified design studio, Cadillac crafted the ATS to feel like a little brother of the CTS—a Caddy through and through, though maybe most distinctively, with a wider, lower grill to accentuate agility. But none of this would have mattered much if the car didn’t drive well. As it turns out, it drove extremely well.

"The original Cadillac CTS wasn’t as good as a [BMW] 3 series or 5 series," Hardigree assesses. "But fast forward 10 years in the future, and the new ATS is benchmarked to, not the newest 3 series, but an older BMW 3 series that actually benchmarks better."

Hardigree continues: "If you can swallow buying an ATS, it is the best car in compact luxury. It’s a great car, you just have to suck up the fact that it’s a Cadillac. Some people will hear you have a Cadillac and think you have gold chains, chest hair, and three buttons unbuttoned. But they’re great cars. At some point, people will get over that stigma."

Adams, a Cadillac designer, confirms that the next battle is to change consumer perception. "We know we have work to do. We have a lot more people to convert and bring them over to looking at us with a new level of respect. That takes time, consistency, and integrity. We’re doing the right things at the right time now, and we’re going to keep growing, building the brand, and being laser focused on what’s next."

What’s Next

A sci-fi conceptual mock up of the ELR, Cadillac’s Volt.

Whether it’s your cup of tea or not, Cadillac’s new design finally has a perspective to buck the stigmas of Florida drivers and gold chains. And with the critically acclaimed ATS in its pocket, Cadillac has a new level of clout. The future for Cadillac hinges on expanding its line with character and variety but with enough consistency to feel like a steady, timeless luxury brand.

The next statement in their lineup is what Butler calls the "epitome of art and science." Called the ELR, it’s Cadillac’s take on the Chevy Volt platform. Deconstructing the entire concept will only lead you to a series of borderline silly paradoxes: An electric coupe? An eco-friendly Cadillac? But the company hopes it will be a showpiece, almost like a concept car that’s actually brought to market. It’s perhaps Cadillac design’s least apologetic, yet maybe most refined form yet—a balance between the hard lines of "art and science" with the sculptured curves that historically define luxurious goods.

The final ELR design. A single cheekbone connects the taillight to the front tire.

"Cadillac has turned everything on the car into a design feature," Hardigree tells me, as I pore over the Tron-esque concept art GM had sent me earlier. "The CHMSL on the ELR coupe looks like He-Man’s sword. It’s not like a BMW where you have chutes and lines going in all sorts of directions."

Indeed, right down to the distinct curves of their cars, Cadillac has found direction after decades of being lost on the map. Only time will tell how many of us they can bring along on the ride.

Add New Comment


  • I wish they'd have a soft, extremely roomy sofa-on-wheels such as the 1996 Fleetwood Brougham, preferably available w/ no center console and a front bench. I love driving or riding in these, so soft, big inside and luxurious. At least they have a station wagon (providing more interior space) now. Also, they at least have a coupe. Cadillac (and basically all manufacturers) should offer each car their lineup in coupe, sedan, and station wagon form (which they do with the CTS) . Also offer the options of no center console w/ front bench seat (like the DTS).

  • Cadillac has always had a great, smooth ride, handling and looks. My last was a 2003 Escalade. It was a piece of S--T. Drove it off the showroom floor on Valentine's Day in a blizzard. Then began all the problems. It must have been a friday, monday build. The first 6 months the dealer but more mileage on it than I did. At 18 month's old, in the middle of a hot, nasty Maryland summer in the middle of a move to a new home the air conditioner started blowing SMOKE from the cabin vents and numerous other problems we took it to a GM dealer and traded it in on a 2005 GMC Yukon XLT. The Caddie was still under warranty but I was done with paying for a car that the dealer used more than I did. Still have the Yukon and run's great but lacks the accessories that my 2000 Suburban 2500 4x4 had in it. I guess GM was in trouble then. I will not buy another GM until they pay off the first loan from the taxpayer's. Government Motors paid the second loan off.

  • I purchased a SRX 2006 in 2013 and Onstar diagnosed a P008 code in January which is a timing chain issue. I called GM And rep told me I had to pay for a diagnostic at dealership. I called GM Executive office and diagnostic was waived when I complained. Cadillac told me repair would cost $3,000.00. This is a costly repair and I believe GM should pay the cost because there should be a recall on timing chains. GM knows this is an issue in SRC models and they need to make a believer out of me on this model and pay the cost of the repair.

  • Jolene Horton

    I for one haven't ever heard of a problem reselling a Cadillac. I have always wondered why the price tag differs so significantly. Have always been told because the parts are so expensive. These cars have stood the test of time. And I plan to put all my kids into an older model when they get their first cars. And just for the sake of bragging. Even tho it wasn't what I thought my dream car would be. Or my first pick. I am the very proud owner of a 100% original 1969 Cadillac Deville convertible. Even down to it's ostritch skin seats! Don't hate.

  • Justin Houser

    Incomplete report!

    Caddy needs three things: style, quality, and brand.

    It lost two. It needs them.

    A caddy with good resale value doesn't happen. Why?

  • Vespagl

    We were Honda owners who purchased a 2010 CTS, because it was gorgeous!  We keep it because it is an amazingly fun machine to drive.  Great Quality and the dealer experience is unreal good!  The Honda dealers used to treat us like cattle, these guys treat us like we are the reason for their jobs.  We will be buying more caddys in the future.  We jsut do not know if it is an ATS or a CTS many good choices.

  • Marc Hamady

    It's nice that you found a dealership that actually treats you nice, but I feel like no matter which car brand you go with, good dealership service is usually a hit or miss.

  • qitcryn

    i'm a baby boomer.. we had a 78 Deville I miss that baby there... Caddy was the crown of American Luxury, and will will return  The 1st generation CTS coupe is sexy and ugly as it was.. NO ONE in my time has placed such a bold design on the road since then NO One has successfully wowed car buyers like the CTS Coupe did. I'm not talking sales.. just the boldness to place that on the road..earned my respect for Caddy. Ever since then i've been paying close attention to Caddy's line-up, hopefully the CIEL will be the next move that will cement Caddy into pure luxury. BMW will be a past thought, so will Lexus and definately Infiniti. I only see Mercedes and Caddy at the top of the US Luxury brand market in about 2-3 years.  And i agree, the super high marketing of the 2000's hip-hop scene really helped Caddy out big time.  Just ask Lincoln, Lexus & BMW.. every auto maker starting glueing together a luxury SUV after the Escalade took over the world.

  • Marc Hamady

    I have always been a huge Mercedes fan, and I agree with you about them being on top of the luxury car market. I never liked BMWs and I am too crazy about the other luxury brands, but they have stepped up their game. I used to make fun of Lexus, but now they have changed. Just look at their new lineup of cars. Heck, even Infiniti has a lot planned, and just like Cadillac, they plan on unveiling a new flagship sedan.

  • CyberSamurai

    Sorry to disagree, but it was the Cadillac Escalade, celebrity endorsement and marketing that saved Cadillac.

  • Designman1318

    I for one hate these "Edgy" designs! They do not - period - represent in the minds of former Cadillac owners a product of value! GM's current Cadillac offerings are in some way trying to be or are saying something about this series of cars that isn't! They aren't Mercedes nor a BMW or even a contender for competing with any of the Japanese or Korean offerings! Only one of the designs shown as the "2003 Sixteen Concept" comes close to reality! 


    I think the point is, Cadillac knows that they can't appeal to "former Cadillac owners." If Cadillac is smart, and I think they are, they will attempt to distance themselves from the types of people who enjoyed buying those old rolling coffins. 

  • Jolene Horton

    As a proud owner of one of these beautiful old rolling 'coffins'. You are severely mistaken.

  • Dan

    When will they make a convertible to compete with the Audi A5, BMW 1,  3 and 6 Series,  Infiniti G37, Lexus IS 250 and 350, Mercedes E-Class and Volvo C70?

  • Neil

    So it's not ok for Cadillac to raid the GM parts bin to build the new ATS, but it's ok for Cadillac to raid the GM parts bin to build the ELR?

    That was a fast comeback!

    Next time, try sticking to your ideals a little longer, Cadillac.
    You almost had me there...

  • Michael Valentine

    As somebody who owns a Volt, all I can say, it is one of the finest crafted vehicles with the pinnacle pinnacle of technology. Having seen the ELR in person, it is drop dead gorgeous!