The overarching business problem designers will face early in their freelance careers is navigating the waters of how to get paid for things. There are so many potholes, nightmare scenarios, and snake-oil businesspeople vying to get free work that, when combined with the "you must first build your résumé while not getting paid" notion that is wrongfully being accepted as normal practice today, it can seem impossible to understand how to protect yourself. Here are 10 tips:
1. Get it in writing.
Get project scopes explained fully and make sure both sides understand exactly what’s being done (specific constraints, milestones, revisions, changes, pricing, timeframe, etc.). Use a contract if possible, or at least get it all in email.
2. No spec work.
If you ever see something like "We’re asking for examples from different firms/people" or "We’d like to see what ideas you have first," politely explain to the client that you don’t work for free. You’ll run the risk of not getting paid and—worse—the possibility that the client uses your work anyway. You don’t get to sample the steak before you eat it.
Check out NO!SPEC for more.
3. Upfront payments.
Those who argue won’t pay after anyway. 50% upfront, 50% at end (or 1/3, 1/3, 1/3) is standard practice; anyone who doesn’t think that’s fair is going to treat you poorly with money. This rule and the next are the two most important in protecting yourself from being screwed over.
4. Never send final work before final money.
"End of project" means "once the client gives the okay, but before final work is sent." Don’t send a website live before you have the money, and don’t send vector/hi-res graphics files for print. Use your own hosting (mywebsite.com/projects/project_name), and send low-res/raster files.
5. Look for red flags. Run for the hills.
Look out for warning signals. A client who tells you they have design skills or experience or an "eye" can be trouble because he or she will likely not respect your ideas. Design by committee—that is, a group of people who must approve your work, rather than a single point person—is trouble because it invites the too many cooks to the kitchen. Watch out for things like "this will look great in your portfolio." That generally means "we don’t want to pay you." Also, in job listings, "Code ninja," "Design warrior," or other meaningless phrases tend to signal the person who wrote the listing doesn’t understand much about the topic and wants the reader to feel like their firm is hip and trendy. Other notables, and their translations:
This will lead to paid work.
I don’t want to pay you, and I will have an excuse later as to why it didn’t lead to paid work.
It won’t take long.
I have no idea how long it should take, nor do I care; I just know that I want to pay for 10 minutes of work.
Feel free to just be creative.
I’m not sure what I want, but I’ll know it when I see it.
Let your creative juices flow.
I have no direction for you and want to see a billion styles for the price of one.
Think outside the box.
I’m under the illusion that "different" automatically means "better." Also, I was born in 1937 and haven’t updated my idioms.
Frankly, there are a huge number of things that could fall under the "red flag" heading, and an entire list could be dedicated solely to it. Just be aware. Don’t turn away clients automatically, but also be cognizant of things that will cause you headaches and be more trouble than they’re worth.
6. Avoid working for friends and family.
Money is a touchy subject with some people, and it isn’t worth ruining a relationship over work. If you’re going to work for friends or family, make the constraints all the more clear. If you give friends a great price because you know them, you might get bitten in the ass later and be asked to do more work than you than you expected.
7. Pick your battles.
Something you’ll face a lot is the large disparity in clients with regard to creative control; some will give you too much freedom (open-ended, no direction), some not nearly enough (telling you exactly what they want designed). Don’t argue every time someone doesn’t like what you make. Err toward accommodating their wishes, but also explain your design decisions.
8. Sometimes, swing for the fences with pricing.
Some people want something for nothing. Don’t work for them. Be fair with your pricing, but understand that in design, clients are not paying for labor and time, but for skill and the end-product. Try to glean what a client can pay, and make that part of your decision. You shouldn’t be charging a nonprofit the same as a big company.
9. Learn all the things.
Don’t be nervous about taking on things that you aren’t sure you can do, because you’ll figure it out—necessity is the mother of invention. Try to imagine a giant web of every skill/profession and their interconnections. From your master skill—design—you should at least know a bit about all the skills that touch it. It will make your work better.
10. Reputation is everything.
Get good clients early on, and you can choose your work down the road. Think of the kind of designer/worker you want people to think of you as. Be that.
There are inevitably going to be times that you’ll feel stuck between two bad choices: the appearance of a good opportunity, and not being paid (or being paid something that isn’t worth the cost). Learning to make the hard decision of sticking to your guns and swallowing the loss of potential work is invaluable, especially when you’re in business for yourself.
A version of this article originally appeared on Question Design.