When Branding Is Too Good: A Cautionary Tale From New York's Citi Bike

Why would any other company want to join Citi as a sponsor?

New Yorkers have racked up more than 7 million trips on Citi Bike, New York City’s bike-share system, since it launched late last May. More than 100,000 people hold annual memberships. Yet financially, Citi Bike needs help. According to the New York Times, Citi Bike is seeking somewhere in the range of $20 million to be able to maintain and expand the program. As the city’s transportation commissioner, Polly Trottenberg, has admitted, Citi Bike has faced "significant financial and operational issues."

The company's financial turmoil may be due, in part, to the structure of its main sponsorship with Citi Bank. The New York City Department of Transportation provides oversight for Citi Bike, but the program—which is the largest in the country—receives no public money, differentiating it from bike shares in other cities. The New York system is operated by NYC Bike Share, a subsidiary of the Portland-based Alta Bike Share, which also operates systems in Chicago, Boston, and Washington, D.C., among others. In a deal brokered by the Bloomberg administration, Citigroup is paying $41 million over the bike share’s first five years to be the title sponsor. Mastercard, the only other sponsor, paid $6.5 million.

The problem is that it can be hard to decipher where Citi Bike ends and Citibank begins, making it difficult to entice additional sponsors to join. When you allow one company to brand your service so completely, there’s little benefit left to offer other potential funding partners. According to the Wall Street Journal:

Alta was always expected to seek sponsorship, in addition to Citigroup Inc., which paid for the naming rights. Goldman Sachs Group Inc. lent the money up front to pay for start-up costs. Finding additional sponsors has proved challenging because the program has become so closely associated with its eponymous supporter, according to a person familiar with the matter.

Citi made a smart investment by inextricably linking itself with the popular bike share for a mere $41 million. Thousands of New Yorkers are riding moving Citi billboards around the city each day. For the bike share, the benefits of the partnership are less clear. By not securing enough Citi money to keep itself afloat from the outset without other sponsors, Citi Bike may have hobbled itself.

Scott Galloway, a marketing professor at New York University’s Stern School of Business, tells Co.Design that it’s not shocking that Citi Bike would have difficulties finding additional sponsorship. "When the first member on your team is A-Rod, it doesn’t leave a lot of opportunity or budget to other players," he says. "When your first sponsor is Citi and it’s called Citi Bike, there’s not a lot of value for other advertisers. They should have known upfront they were selling one sponsorship, and should have planned accordingly." (According to Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg administration officials initially asked Citigroup for more, but were negotiated down.)

Citi has branded the bike-sharing service in New York so fantastically that trying to separate the bikes from their sponsor can be confusing. "It’s the visual and the verbal," explains Kevin Lane Keller, a marketing professor at Dartmouth’s Tuck School of Business. First, Citi Bike and Citibank sound so similar that in announcing the partnership, then-Mayor Michael Bloomberg got them mixed up.

Then there's the physical branding: In addition to the Citi logo, the bike-share network is plastered with the bank's distinct shade of cobalt blue (a hue screenwriter Delia Ephron decried as having "distorted every view" in the city). website looks just similar enough to Citi the bank’s actual site (again, that blue!), to make me briefly question whether I was looking at a Citi-owned product. I’m not the only one who gets confused. Vandals have smashed Citi Bike docking stations in protest of Citigroup. Some "people don’t realize that Citi is just a sponsor and it’s Alta that operates all of this," Keller says. "They assume this is all Citi’s."

That confusion is compounded here: When asked about Citi Bike’s difficulties finding other sponsors, a media representative from NYC Bike Share directed all queries to Citi’s director of public affairs (who as of publication time has not provided a response.)

Of course, becoming the primary sponsor for an unproven bike-sharing system was a risk on Citigroup’s part. Had the bike share been wildly loathed, the company would have been entwined with the controversy. "The meanings of Citi the brand are now forever connected to this bike thing, for five years," says Susan Fournier, a professor of marketing at the Boston University School of Management. "In the evolutionary plane of this [Citi Bike] brand, five years is going to be a long time." These first few years are when people’s perceptions of the bike share are being formed.

Some branding opportunities are, by nature, parties of one, like naming rights to a stadium. You can’t call a baseball stadium US Cellular/Staples Field. By not branding the system with a lead sponsor's name, other bike-share programs, like D.C.’s Capitol Bike Share, have left themselves open to dozens of sponsors, like their station sponsorship program, for example, that nets $18,000 per 19-dock station. In Citi Bike's case, "there’ll be other ancillary opportunities, but everything is going to play second fiddle to Citi," Galloway says.

So far, connection with the popular service has been good for Citi. Celebrities Citi Bike. Brides Citi Bike. In a recent interview with Advertising Age magazine, Citibank marketing executive Elyssa Gray said the bike-share sponsorship has netted $4.4 million dollars in earned media (free advertising, largely from social media).

Meanwhile, Citi Bike's own earned revenue isn't what the bike-share organizers had hoped. Part of the blame for Citi Bike’s financial woes has been placed on its lack of popularity with casual riders. The bike share has so far attracted far more annual riders, who pay only $95 a year for unlimited rides up to 45 minutes, compared to daily passers, who pay $9.95 for 24-hours of unlimited 30 minute trips. The bike share has also faced other unforeseen challenges: damage to bikes by Hurricane Sandy, an especially rough first winter, and the bankruptcy of Bixi, the company providing the bike share's technology.

If Citi Bike hopes to bring in new sponsors to make up for its budget gaps, it’ll have to figure out a way to provide some sort of value for them, whether that’s giving them a portion of signage on the bikes or stations or something else entirely. It’ll certainly be a tough sell. Citi Bike frames may be clunky, but they’re not quite big enough to support more than the five Citi logos already embedded in the Citi Bike frame.

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  • Craig Briggs

    From solely a branding perspective, this "bannering" of Citibank/Citibike is very strong. Linguistically speaking - great. Visually simple and powerful. However, one has to question its value on other levels. Firstly, Citibank probably does not need additional awareness that it exists as a bank. I suspect 99% of people there know and understand this. Just plastering your well-known name (with no other message) does not really connect deeply with people. Secondly, it feels a bit like ethical green-washing. Citibank is one of the bailed-out, too-big-to-fail banks who are living today on the taxpayers' good graces. Now, maybe this is their way of 'giving back'? Please pay to ride one of our bikes, now that I've foreclosed on your home and repossessed your Camry. I'll honk and wave to you from my new Beamer. It's hard not to be a skeptic. BP could sponsor the program, too, and evoke the same suspicion.

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  • Mike Goulet

    Ok, so the sponsor's name and the program name have to stay. Ever seen a NASCAR race? Every car has one main sponsor and about 50 smaller sponsors. That seems to work for everyone involved.

    If the name is the big deal, add to it. Reach out to companies like American Airlines, American Express, American Express Blue Card, the Yankees, etc.

    Then, you can have branded names like "American Citi Bike," "Blue Citi Bikes," stations named Citi Bike Yankee Express. Granted, that may perpetuate the problem depending on the strategy. But, if you have 2 or more big players, you have competition to sponsor.. the thing they most clearly lack.


  • Since the name "citi bikes" is so popular and would be hard to change, additional sponsors get majority advertising rights to the bike stations with their logos/ads on them, which they can design themselves, they would also get some logo placement on the bikes themselves.

    So the program would still be called citi bikes, keeping all the name recognition, but additional sponsors would have something like, "Staples 23rd st bike station" and it could be painted red, or stations in front of/ near mc donalds could sponsor those bike stations, and offer some kind of deal "use a citi bike they get a free apple pie" or something

  • Patrick Toohey

    Knowledge of a brand can evolve over time. You mentioned that Citi has a five year agreement as the title sponsor and that that may adversely affect the program's ability to be identified as anything other than 'Citi bike.' I would argue that the Android mobile operating system endured a similar problem when Verizon was the primary carrier pushing the OS under the 'Droid' moniker. Only after the OS had achieved deeper market penetration, through various carriers, did the name ' Android' begin to mean anything to the average consumer.

    If Alta can manage to ride out the five year deal and more and more New Yorkers start to use the service I'm sure they can get past this predicament.

  • Usuario OHkeo

    maybe a good idea would be put on the front wheel Advertise with www.ohkeo.com @Ohkeo.
    Vodafone in Barcelona / Spain paid 4 million euros for 3 years advertising on bicycles. Angel

  • Hi very very intresting problem , the only one that can solve this , is creativity in sponsorship.

    the key of sponsoring is thst it needs media to work , theres no Mother Theresa donations for a could cause, all advertisers need a return of investment in sponsorship plans.

    Other sponsors : uuummmm

    Pirelli - Citi bikes runs safe on Pirelli( tyres)-- there s space to put the sign timex /swatch/ show digital timerr- seen by everybody

    you need more make a sponsorship plan I know what I m talking about

    see you

    steve mac d o e r
    mobile creative contents meaning maker context creative smart marketing brand personality builder keeping it simple www.vlamarca.com.ar https://www.facebook.com/vlamarcadoers https://www.facebook.com/VlamarcaComex

    M a r k e t i n g a s y o u k n o w i t, o r k n e w i t . I s H i s t o r y.

  • Melbourne (Australia) has a bike sharing service that's unsponsored, but coincidentally uses the same blue, I'm starting to wonder why?

  • Jennifer Widjaja

    A possible idea could be the introduction of different colours (that will represent different brands) to the NYC bike, some examples: Blue - Citibank Red - canon Green - BP Purple - Cadbury

    And a perfect timing to introduce these colours rather than just popping out of the blue is Mardi Gras, where their signature 'logo' is the rainbow. I don't know how supportive America as a country is for LGBTI as I don't live there.. But in Australia, we had a rainbow pedestrian crossing in one specific suburb introduced during mardi gras to show our support of the LGBTI community (and it stayed there for quite sometime too).

    I would imagine everyone will be more excited with their experience of the NYC Bike with just some pops of colours, while also solving the problem of lack of sponsors.

  • Exactly my thought! And I've read so much about how Barclay's got a amazing deal with the bike and cycle lane branding - Citi Bike definitely out does them there though.

    And comparing the two articles it looks as thought Citi Group have given a similar amount in sponsorship as Barclay's. The wiki article cites TfL figures that show that only covers 20% of the cost for the 5 years so that's potentially a massive shortfall and a very poorly brokered deal.

  • Also presumably that it's called Citi Bike and it's, um, a city bike.

    Feel for Barclays as head sponsor of London's cycle scheme, where all the bikes are informally called 'Boris bikes' after the mayor instead.

  • Barclay's Cycle Hire - the official name - isn't quite as catchy at Citi Bike so it was going to get a nickname one way or the other.

    For some reason the Barclay's sponsorship appears to have extended to painting the new, major cycle routes through London in Barclay's blue as well as the bikes.